Header Summits

146 Reasons Why Sugar Destroys Your Health

By Nancy Appleton PhD

Excerpted from Suicide by Sugar

146 Reasons Why Sugar Destroys Your Health

(Detailed scientific references are available at the end of this article.)

1. Sugar can suppress the immune system.
2. Sugar upsets the mineral relationships in the body.
3. Sugar can cause hyperactivity, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and crankiness in children.
4. Sugar can produce a significant rise in triglycerides.
5. Sugar contributes to the reduction in defense against bacterial infection (infectious diseases).
6. Sugar causes a loss of tissue elasticity and function, the more sugar you eat the more elasticity and function you lose.
7. Sugar reduces high-density lipoproteins.
8. Sugar leads to chromium deficiency.
9. Sugar leads to cancer of the ovaries.
10. Sugar can increase fasting levels of glucose.

11. Sugar causes copper deficiency.
12. Sugar interferes with absorption of calcium and magnesium.
13. Sugar may make eyes more vulnerable to age-related macular degeneration.
14. Sugar raises the level of a neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.
15. Sugar can cause hypoglycemia.
16. Sugar can produce an acidic digestive tract.
17. Sugar can cause a rapid rise of adrenaline levels in children.
18. Sugar malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional bowel disease.
19. Sugar can cause premature aging.
20. Sugar can lead to alcoholism.
21. Sugar can cause tooth decay.
22. Sugar contributes to obesity
23. High intake of sugar increases the risk of Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis.
24. Sugar can cause changes frequently found in person with gastric or duodenal ulcers.
25. Sugar can cause arthritis.
26. Sugar can cause asthma.
27. Sugar greatly assists the uncontrolled growth of Candida Albicans (yeast infections).
28. Sugar can cause gallstones.
29. Sugar can cause heart disease.
30. Sugar can cause appendicitis.
31. Sugar can cause hemorrhoids.
32. Sugar can cause varicose veins.
33. Sugar can elevate glucose and insulin responses in oral contraceptive users.
34. Sugar can lead to periodontal disease.
35. Sugar can contribute to osteoporosis.
36. Sugar contributes to saliva acidity.
37. Sugar can cause a decrease in insulin sensitivity.
38. Sugar can lower the amount of Vitamin E (alpha-Tocopherol) in the blood.
39. Sugar can decrease growth hormone.
40. Sugar can increase cholesterol.
41. Sugar can increase the systolic blood pressure.
42. High sugar intake increases advanced glycation end products (AGEs)(Sugar bound non-enzymatically to protein)
43. Sugar can interfere with the absorption of protein.
44. Sugar causes food allergies.
45. Sugar can contribute to diabetes.
46. Sugar can cause toxemia during pregnancy.
47. Sugar can contribute to eczema in children.
48. Sugar can cause cardiovascular disease.
49. Sugar can impair the structure of DNA
50. Sugar can change the structure of protein.
51. Sugar can make our skin age by changing the structure of collagen.
52. Sugar can cause cataracts.
53. Sugar can cause emphysema.
54. Sugar can cause atherosclerosis.
55. Sugar can promote an elevation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL).
56. High sugar intake can impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in the body.
57. Sugar lowers the enzymes ability to function.
58. Sugar intake is higher in people with Parkinson’s disease.
59. Sugar can increase the size of the liver by making the liver cells divide.
60. Sugar can increase the amount of liver fat.
61. Sugar can increase kidney size and produce pathological changes in the kidney.
62. Sugar can damage the pancreas.
63. Sugar can increase the body’s fluid retention.
64. Sugar is enemy #1 of the bowel movement.
65. Sugar can cause myopia (nearsightedness).
66. Sugar can compromise the lining of the capillaries.
67. Sugar can make the tendons more brittle.
68. Sugar can cause headaches, including migraine.
69. Sugar plays a role in pancreatic cancer in women.
70. Sugar can adversely affect school children’s grades and cause learning disorders.
71. Sugar can cause depression.
72. Sugar increases the risk of gastric cancer.
73. Sugar and cause dyspepsia (indigestion).
74. Sugar can increase your risk of getting gout.
75. Sugar can increase the levels of glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test over the ingestion of complex carbohydrates.
76. Sugar can increase the insulin responses in humans consuming high-sugar diets compared to low-sugar diets.
77. A diet high in refined sugar reduces learning capacity.
78. Sugar can cause less effective functioning of two blood proteins, albumin, and lipoproteins, which may reduce the body’s ability to handle fat and cholesterol.
79. Sugar can contribute to Alzheimer’s disease.
80. Sugar can cause platelet adhesiveness.
81. Sugar can cause hormonal imbalance; some hormones become under active and others become overactive.
82. Sugar can lead to the formation of kidney stones.
83. Diets high in sugar can cause free radicals and oxidative stress.
84. High sugar diet can lead to biliary tract cancer.
85. High sugar consumption of pregnant adolescents is associated with a twofold-increased risk for delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant.
86. High sugar consumption can lead to substantial decrease in gestation duration among adolescents.
87. Sugar slows food’s travel time through the gastrointestinal tract.
88. Sugar increases the concentration of bile acids in stools and bacterial enzymes in the colon. This can modify bile to produce cancer-causing compounds and colon cancer.
89. Sugar increases estradiol (the most potent form of naturally occurring estrogen) in men.
90. Sugar combines with and destroys phosphatase, an enzyme, which makes the process of digestion more difficult.
91. Sugar can be a risk factor of gallbladder cancer.
92. Sugar is an addictive substance.
93. Sugar can be intoxicating, similar to alcohol.
94. Sugar can exacerbate PMS.
95. Sugar given to premature babies can affect the amount of carbon dioxide they produce.
96. Decrease in sugar intake can increase emotional stability.
97. The rapid absorption of sugar promotes excessive food intake in obese subjects.
98. Sugar can worsen the symptoms of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
99. Sugar adversely affects urinary electrolyte composition.
100. Sugar can slow down the ability of the adrenal glands to function.
101. I.Vs (intravenous feedings) of sugar water can cut off oxygen to the brain.
102. High sucrose intake could be an important risk factor in lung cancer.
103. Sugar increases the risk of polio.
104. High sugar intake can cause epileptic seizures.
105. Sugar causes high blood pressure in obese people.
106. In Intensive Care Units, limiting sugar saves lives.
107. Sugar may induce cell death.
108. Sugar can increase the amount of food that you eat.
109. In juvenile rehabilitation camps, when children were put on a low sugar diet, there was a 44% drop in antisocial behavior.
110. Sugar can lead to prostrate cancer.
111. Sugar dehydrates newborns.
112. Sugar can cause low birth weight babies.
113. Greater consumption of refined sugar is associated with a worse outcome of schizophrenia
114. Sugar can raise homocysteine levels in the blood stream.
115. Sweet food items increase the risk of breast cancer.
116. Sugar is a risk factor in cancer of the small intestine.
117. Sugar may cause laryngeal cancer.
118. Sugar induces salt and water retention.
119. Sugar may contribute to mild memory loss.
120. The more sodas a 10 year old child consumes, the less milk.
121. Sugar can increase the total amount of food consumed.
122. Exposing a newborn to sugar results in a heightened preference for sucrose relative to water at 6 months and 2 years of age.
123. Sugar causes constipation.
124. Sugar causes varicose veins.
125. Sugar can cause brain decay in prediabetic and diabetic women.
126. Sugar can increase the risk of stomach cancer.
127. Sugar can cause metabolic syndrome.
128. Sugar ingestion by pregnant women increases neural tube defects in embryos.
129. Sugar can be a factor in asthma.
130. The higher the sugar consumption the more chances of getting irritable bowel syndrome.
131. Sugar can affect the brain’s ability to deal with rewards and consequences.
132. Sugar can cause cancer of the rectum.
133. Sugar can cause endometrial cancer.
134. Sugar can cause renal (kidney) cell carcinoma.
135. Sugar can cause liver tumors.
136. Sugar can increase inflammatory markers in the blood stream of overweight people.
137. Sugar can lower Vitamin E levels in the blood stream.
138. Sugar can increase your appetite for all food.
139. Sugar plays a role in the etiology and the continuation of acne.
140. Too much sugar can kill your sex life.
141. Sugar saps school performance in children.
142. Sugar can cause fatigue, moodiness, nervousness and depression.
143. Sugar is common choice of obese individuals.
144. A linear decrease in the intake of many essential nutrients is associated with increasing total sugar intake.
145. High fructose consumption has been linked to liver disease.
146. Sugar adds to the risk of bladder cancer.


1. Sanchez, A., et al. “Role of Sugars in Human Neutrophilic Phagocytosis,” Am J Clin Nutr. Nov 1973;261:1180-1184.
Bernstein, J., et al. “Depression of Lymphocyte Transformation Following Oral Glucose Ingestion.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;30:613.
2. Couzy, F., et al.”Nutritional Implications of the Interaction Minerals,” Progressive Food and Nutrition Science. 17;1933:65-87.
3. Goldman, J., et al. “Behavioral Effects of Sucrose on Preschool Children.” J Abnormal Child Psychol.1986;14(4):565-577.
4. Scanto, S. and Yudkin, J. “The Effect of Dietary Sucrose on Blood Lipids, Serum Insulin, Platelet Adhesiveness and Body Weight in Human Volunteers.” J Postgrad Med. 1969;45:602-607.
5. Ringsdorf, W., Cheraskin, E. and Ramsay R. “Sucrose,Neutrophilic Phagocytosis and Resistance to Disease,” Dental Surv. 1976;52(12):46-48.
6. Cerami, A., et al. “Glucose and Aging.” Scientific American. May 1987:90.
Lee, A. T. and Cerami, A. “The Role of Glycation in Aging.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 663:63-67.
7. Albrink, M. and Ullrich I. H. “Interaction of Dietary Sucrose and Fiber on Serum Lipids in Healthy Young Men Fed High Carbohydrate Diets.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;43:419-428.
Pamplona, R., et al. Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis. Med Hypotheses. Mar 1993;40(3):174-81.
8. Kozlovsky, A., et al. “Effects of Diets High in Simple Sugars on Urinary Chromium Losses.” Metabolism. June 1986;35:515-518.
9. Takahashi, E., Tohoku University School of Medicine, Wholistic Health Digest. October 1982:41.
10. Kelsay, J., et al. “Diets High in Glucose or Sucrose and Young Women.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1974;27:926-936.
Thomas, B. J., et al. Relation of Habitual Diet to Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentration and the Insulin Response to Oral Glucose, Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1983; 36C(1):49_51.
11. Fields, M.., et al. “Effect of Copper Deficiency on Metabolism and Mortality in Rats Fed Sucrose or Starch Diets,” Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;113:1335-1345.
12. Lemann, J. “Evidence that Glucose Ingestion Inhibits Net Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Calcium and Magnesium.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 ;70:236-245.
13. Chiu, C. Am J Clin Nutr. July 2007;86:180-188
14. “Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response.” The Addiction Letter .Jul 1992:4.
15. Dufty, William. Sugar Blues. (New York:Warner Books, 1975).
16. Ibid.
17. Jones, T. W., et al. Enhanced Adrenomedullary Response and Increased Susceptibility to Neuroglygopenia: Mechanisms Underlying the Adverse Effect of Sugar Ingestion in Children. J Pediatrics. Feb 1995;126:171-7.
18. Ibid.
19. Lee, A. T.and Cerami A. “The Role of Glycation in Aging.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 1992;663:63-70.
20. Abrahamson, E. and Peget, A. Body, Mind and Sugar. (New York:Avon,1977.)
21. Glinsmann, W., et al. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners.F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force. 1986:39.
Makinen K.K.,et al. A Descriptive Report of the Effects of a 16_month Xylitol Chewing_Gum Programme Subsequent to a 40_Month Sucrose Gum Programme. Caries Research. 1998; 32(2)107-12.
Riva Touger-Decker and Cor van Loveren, Sugars and Dental Caries.
Am. J. Clin.Nutr. Oct 2003; 78:881-892.
22. Keen, H., et al. “Nutrient Intake, Adiposity, and Diabetes.” Brit Med J. 1989; 1: 655-658.
23. Tragnone, A. et al. Dietary Habits as Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Jan 1995;7(1):47-51.
24. Yudkin, J. Sweet and Dangerous. (New York;Bantam Books:1974), 129.
25. Darlington, L., Ramsey, et al. “Placebo-Controlled, Blind Study of Dietary Manipulation Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Lancet. Feb 1986;8475(1):236-238.
26. Powers, L. “Sensitivity: You React to What You Eat.” Los Angeles Times. Feb. 12, 1985.
Cheng, J., et al. Preliminary Clinical Study on the Correlation Between Allergic Rhinitis and Food Factors.Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi Aug 2002;16(8):393-396.
27. Crook, W. J. The Yeast Connection. (TN:Professional Books, 1984).
28. Heaton, K. “The Sweet Road to Gallstones.” Brit Med J. Apr 14, 1984; 288:1103-1104.
Misciagna, G., et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:120-126.
29. Yudkin, J. “Sugar Consumption and Myocardial Infarction.” Lancet. Feb 6, 1971;1(7693):296-297.
Chess DJ, et al. Deleterious Effects of Sugar and Protective Effects of Starch on Cardiac Remodeling, Contractile Dysfunction, and Mortality in Response to Pressure Overload. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.Sept. 2007;293(3):H1853-H1860
30. Cleave, T. The Saccharine Disease. (New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1974).
31. op. cit.
32. Cleave, T. and Campbell, G. Diabetes, Coronary Thrombosis and the Saccharine Disease. (Bristol, England, John Wright and Sons, 1960).
33. Behall, K. “Influence of Estrogen Content of Oral Contraceptives and Consumption of Sucrose on Blood Parameters.” Disease Abstracts International. 1982;431-437.
34. Glinsmann, W., et al. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners.F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force. 1986;39:36_38.
35. Tjaderhane, L. and Larmas, M. A High Sucrose Diet Decreases the Mechanical Strength of Bones in Growing Rats. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998:128:1807-1810.
36. Wilson R.F. and Ashley F.P. The Effects of Experimental Variations in Dietary Sugar Intake and Oral hygiene on the Biochemical Composition and pH of Free Smooth-surface and Approximal Plaque. J Dent Res. June 1988;67(6):949-953
37. Beck-Nielsen H., et al. Effects of Diet on the Cellular Insulin Binding and the Insulin Sensitivity in Young Healthy Subjects.” Diabetes. 1978;15:289-296.
38. Mohanty P. et al. Glucose Challenge Stimulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generation by Leucocytes. J Clin Endocrin Metabol. Aug 2000; 85(8):2970-2973.
39. Gardner, L. and Reiser, S. “Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate on Fasting Levels of Human Growth Hormone and Cortisol.” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1982;169:36-40.
40. Ma Y. et al. Association Between Carbohydrate Intake and Serum Lipids. J Am Coll Nutr. Apr 2006;25(2):155-163
41. Preuss, H. G. Sugar-Induced Blood Pressure Elevations Over the Lifespan of Three Substrains of Wistar Rats. J Am Coll of Nutr. 1998;17(1) 36-37.
42. Furth, A. and Harding, J. “Why Sugar Is Bad For You.” New Scientist. Sep 23, 1989;44.
43. Lee AT, Cerami A. Role of Glycation in Aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov 21, 1992 ;663:63-70.
44. Appleton, N. Lick the Sugar Habit. (New York: Avery Penguin Putnam:1988).
45. Henriksen H. B. and, Kolset S.O. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. Sep 6, 2007;127(17):2259-62.
46. Cleave, T.: The Saccharine Disease. (New Canaan Ct: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1974).131.
47. Ibid. 132.
48. Vaccaro O., et al. Relationship of Postload Plasma Glucose to Mortality with 19 Year Follow-up. Diabetes Care. Oct 15,1992;10:328-334.
Tominaga, M., et al, Impaired Glucose Tolerance Is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease, but Not Fasting Glucose. Diabetes Care. 1999:2(6):920-924.
49. Lee, A. T. and Cerami, A. “Modifications of Proteins and Nucleic Acids by Reducing Sugars: Possible Role in Aging.” Handbook of the Biology of Aging. (New York: Academic Press, 1990.).
50. Monnier, V. M. “Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process.” J Gerontol.1990:45(4 ):105-110.
51. Dyer, D. G., et al. “Accumulation of Maillard Reaction Products in Skin Collagen in Diabetes and Aging.” J Clin Invest. 1993:93(6):421-422.
52. Veromann, S. et al. Dietary Sugar and Salt Represent Real Risk Factors for Cataract Development.Ophthalmologica. Jul-Aug 2003 ;217(4):302-307.
53. Monnier, V. M. “Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process.” J Gerontol.1990:45(4):105-110.
54. Schmidt A.M. et al. Activation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products: a Mechanism for Chronic Vascular Dysfunction in Diabetic Vasculopathy and Atherosclerosis. Circ Res. Mar 1999 19;84(5):489-97.
55. Lewis, G. F. and Steiner, G. Acute Effects of Insulin in the Control of VLDL Production in Humans. Implications for The Insulin-resistant State. Diabetes Care. Apr 1996;19(4):390-3
R. Pamplona, M. .J., et al. “Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis.” Med Hypotheses. 1990;40:174-181.
56. Ceriello, A. Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29.
57. Appleton, N. Lick the Sugar Habit. (New York: Avery Penguin Putnam, 1988).
58. Hellenbrand, W. Diet and Parkinson’s Disease. A Possible Role for the Past Intake of Specific Nutrients. Results from a Self-administered Food-frequency Questionnaire in a Case-control Study.Neurology. Sep 1996;47(3):644-650
Cerami, A., et al. “Glucose and Aging.” Scientific American. May 1987: 90.
59. Goulart, F. S. “Are You Sugar Smart?” American Fitness. Mar-Apr 1991: 34-38.
60. Scribner, K.B. et al. Hepatic Steatosis and Increased Adiposity in Mice Consuming Rapidly vs. Slowly Absorbed Carbohydrate. Obesity. 2007;15:2190-2199.
61. Yudkin, J., Kang, S. and Bruckdorfer, K. “Effects of High Dietary Sugar.” Brit J Med. Nov 22, 1980;1396.
62. Goulart, F. S. “Are You Sugar Smart?” American Fitness. March-April 1991: 34-38
63. Ibid.
64. Ibid.
65. Ibid.
66. Ibid.
67. Nash, J. “Health Contenders.” Essence. Jan 1992-23: 79-81.
68. Grand, E. “Food Allergies and Migraine.” Lancet. 1979:1:955-959.
69. Michaud, D. Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. Sep 4, 2002 ;94(17):1293-300.
70. Schauss, A. Diet, Crime and Delinquency. (Berkley Ca; Parker House, 1981).
71. Peet, M. “International Variations in the Outcome of Schizophrenia and the Prevalence of Depression in Relation to National Dietary Practices: An Ecological Analysis.” Brit J Psych. 2004;184:404-408.
72. Cornee, J., et al. “A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille, France,”Eur J Epidemiol. 1995;11:55-65.
73. Yudkin, J. Sweet and Dangerous. (New York: Bantam Books,1974) 129.
74. . Choi HK, and Curhan G. Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal. Feb. 9,2008;336(7639):309-312.
75. Reiser, S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans.” Am J Clin Nutr.1986:43;151-159.
76. Reiser,S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans.” Am J Clin Nutr.1986;43:151-159.
77. Molteni, R, et al. A High-fat, Refined Sugar Diet Reduces Hippocampal Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, Neuronal Plasticity, and Learning. NeuroScience. 2002;112(4):803-814.
78. Monnier, V., Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process. J Gerontol.1990;45:105-111.
79. Frey, J. Is There Sugar in the Alzheimer’s Disease? Annales De Biologie Clinique. 2001; 59 (3):253-257.
80. Yudkin, J. “Metabolic Changes Induced by Sugar in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes.”Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):5-8.
81. Ibid.
82. Blacklock, N. J., “Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone.” Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):9-12.
Curhan, G., et al. Beverage Use and Risk for Kidney Stones in Women. Ann Inter Med. 1998:28:534-340.
83. Ceriello, A. Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29.
84. Moerman, C. J., et al. Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Biliary Tract Cancer. Internat J Epidemiol.Apr 1993;2(2):207-214.
85. Lenders, C. M. Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake among Pregnant Adolescents. Am J Nutr. Jun 1997;1113-1117.
86. Ibid.
87. Bostick, R. M., et al. “Sugar, Meat.and Fat Intake and Non-dietary Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Incidence in Iowa Women.” Cancer Causes & Control. 1994:5:38-53.
88. Ibid.
Kruis, W., et al. “Effects of Diets Low and High in Refined Sugars on Gut Transit, Bile Acid Metabolism and Bacterial Fermentation. Gut. 1991;32:367-370.
Ludwig, D. S., et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating, And Obesity. Pediatrics. Mar 1999;103(3):26-32.
89. Yudkin, J and Eisa, O. Dietary Sucrose and Oestradiol Concentration in Young Men. Ann Nutr Metabol. 1988:32(2):53-55.
90. Lee, A. T. and Cerami A. “The Role of Glycation in Aging.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992; 663:63-70.
91. Moerman, C. et al.”Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Gallbladder Tract Cancer.” Internat J of Epi.Apr 1993; 22(2):207-214.
92. Avena N.M. Evidence for Sugar Addiction: Behavioral and Nuerochemical Effects of Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake.Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008;32(1):20-39.
Colantuoni, C., et al. Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence. Obes Res. Jun 2002 ;10(6):478-488.
93. Ibid.
94. The Edell Health Letter. Sept 1991;7:1.
95. Sunehag, A. L., et al. Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition. Diabetes. 1999 ;48 7991-8000).
96. Christensen L. et al. Impact of A Dietary Change on Emotional Distress. J Abnor Psychol. 1985;94(4):565-79.
97. Ludwig, D. S., et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating and Obesity. Pediatrics.Mar1999;103(3):26-32.
98. Girardi, N.L. Blunted Catecholamine Responses after Glucose Ingestion in Children with Attention Deficit Disorder. Pediatrics Res. 1995;38:539-542.
Berdonces, J. L. Attention Deficit and Infantile Hyperactivity. Rev Enferm. Jan 2001;4(1)11-4
99. Blacklock, N. J. Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone. Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1 & 2):9-17.
100. Lechin, F., et al. Effects of an Oral Glucose Load on Plasma Neurotransmitters in Humans.Neurophychobiology. 1992;26(1-2):4-11.
101. Arieff, A. I. IVs of Sugar Water Can Cut Off Oxygen to the Brain. Veterans Administration Medical Center in San Francisco. San Jose Mercury; June 12/86.
102. De Stefani, E. Dietary Sugar and Lung Cancer: a Case Control Study in Uruguay. Nutr and Cancer.1998;31(2):132_7.
103. Sandler, B.P. Diet Prevents Polio. (Milwakuee, WI,: The Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, 1951).
104. Murphy, P. The Role of Sugar in Epileptic Seizures. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. May, 2001.
105. Stern, N. & Tuck, M. Pathogenesis of Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus, a Fundamental and Clinical Test. 2nd Edition, (Phil. A: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000)943-957.
106. Christansen, D. Critical Care: Sugar Limit Saves Lives. Science News. June 30, 2001;159:404.
107. Donnini, D. et al. Glucose May Induce Cell Death through a Free Radical-mediated Mechanism.Biochem Biohhys Res Commun. Feb 15, 1996:219(2):412-417.
108. Levine, A.S, et al. Sugars and Fats: The Neurobiology of Preference  Am J Nutr. 2003 133:831S-834S.
109. Schoenthaler, S. The Los Angeles Probation Department Diet-Behavior Program: Am Empirical Analysis of Six Institutional Settings. Int J Biosocial Res. 5(2):88-89.
110. Deneo-Pellegrini H,. et al.Foods, Nutrients and Prostate cancer: a Case-control study in Uruguay. Br J Cancer. 1999 May;80(3-4):591-7.
111. Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition. Diabetes.1999 Apr;48(4):791-800.
112. Lenders, C. M. Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake Among Pregnant Adolescents. Am Jf Nutr. 1998;128:807-1810.
113. Peet, M. International Variations in the Outcome of Schizophrenia and the Prevalence of Depression in Relation to National Dietary Practices: An Ecological Analysis. Brit J Psychiatry. 2004;184:404-408.
114. Fonseca, V. et al. Effects of a High-fat-sucrose Diet on Enzymes in Homosysteine Metabolism in the Rat. Metabolism. 200; 49:736-41.
115. Potischman, N, et.al. Increased Risk of Early-stage Breast Cancer Related to Consumption of Sweet Foods among Women Less than Age 45 in the United States.” Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Dec;13(10):937-46.
116. Negri. E. et al. Risk Factors for Adenocarcinoma of the Small Intestine.
Intern J Cancer. 1999:82:I2:171-174.
117. Bosetti, C. et al. Food Groups and Laryngeal Cancer Risk: A Case-control Study from Italy and Switzerland. Inter J Cancer. 2002:100(3): 355-358.
118. Shannon, M. An Empathetic Look at Overweight. CCL Family Found. Nov-Dec.1993. 20(3):3-5.
119. Health After 50. Johns Hopkins Med Letter. May 1994.
120.. Rajeshwari, R. et al.Secular Trends in Children’s Sweetened-beverage Consumption (1973 to 1994): The Bogalusa Heart Study. J AM Diet Assoc. Feb 205;105(2):208-214.
121. Levine, A.S. et al. “Sugars and Fats: The Neurobiology of Preference.” Am J Nutr, 2003;133:831S-834S.
122. Booth, D.A.M. et al. ”Sweetness and Food Selection: Measurement of Sweeteners’ Effects on Acceptance.” Sweetness. Dobbing, J., Ed., (London:Springer-Verlag, 1987).
123. Cleve, T.L On the Causation of Varicose Veins. (Bristol, England, John Wright, 1960.)
124. op. cit.
125. Ket, Y. et al. Diabetes, Impaired Fasting Glucose and Development of Cognitive Impairment in Older Women. Neurology. 2004;63:658-663.
126. Chatenoud, Liliane et al. Refined-cereal Intake and Risk of Selected Cancers in Italy. Am. J. Clin Nutr. Dec 1999;70:1107-1110.
127. Yoo, S. et al. Comparison of Dietary Intakes Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Young Adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):841-848.
128. Shaw, Gary M. et al. Neural Tube Defects Associated with Maternal Periconceptional Dietary Intake of Simple Sugars and Glycemic Index.
Am. J. Clin Nutr. Nov 2003;78:972-978.
129. Krilanovich, Nicholas J. Fructose Misuse, the Obesity Epidemic, the Special Problems of the Child, and a Call to Action  Am. J. Clin Nutr. Nov 2004;80:1446-1447.
130. .Jarnerot, G., Consumption of Refined Sugar by Patients with Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative colitis, or Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1983 Nov;18(8):999-1002.
131. Allen, S. “Sugars and Fats: The Neurobiology of Preference.” Am J Nutr.
132. De Stefani E, et al. Sucrose as a Risk Factor for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum: a Case-control Study in Uruguay. Int J Cancer. 1998 Jan 5;75(1):40-4.
133. Levi F, et al. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer. Cancer. 1993 Jun 1;71(11):3575-3581.
134. Mellemgaard A. et al. Dietary Risk Factors for Renal Cell Carcinoma in Denmark. Eur J Cancer. Apr 1996;32A(4):673-82.
135. Rogers AE, et al. Nutritional and Dietary Influences on Liver Tumorigenesis in Mice and Rats. Arch Toxicol Suppl. 1987;10:231-43. Review.
136. Sorensen L.B., et al. “Effect of Sucrose on Inflammatory Markers in Overweight Humans” Am J Clin Nutr. Aug 2005; 82(2)
137. Mohanty, Priya, et.al. “Glucose Challenge Stimulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generation by Leucocytes,” J Clin Endocrinol Metabol.. 2000, Aug:85(8) 2970-2973.
138. Arumugam V, et al. “A High-Glycemic Meal Pattern Elicited Increased Subjective Appetite Sensations in Overweight and Obese Women.” Appetite. 2007; [Epub ahead of print].
139. Smith RN et al. “The Effect of a High-protein, Low Glycemic-load Diet Versus a Conventional, High Glycemic-load Diet on Biochemical Parameters Associated with Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Investigator-masked, Controlled Trial.” J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;57:247-256.
140. Selva, D.M., et al. Monosaccharide-Induced Lipogenesis Regulates the Human Hepatic Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Gene. J. Clin. Invest. 2007. doi:10.1172/JCI32249.
141. Fu M.L., et al. Associatation Between Unhealthful Eating Patterns and Unfavorable Overall School Performance in Children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(11): 1935-1942. 142. Krietsch, K., et al. Prevalence, Presenting Symptoms, and Psychological Characteristics of Individuals Experiencing a Diet-related Mood-disturbance. Behavior Therapy. 1988;19(4): 593-604.
142. Krietsch, K., et al. Prevalence, Presenting Symptoms, and Psychological Characteristics of Individuals Experiencing a Diet-related Mood-disturbance. Behavior Therapy. 1988;19(4): 593-604.
143. Drewnowski A. et al Taste Preferences in Human Obesity: Environmental and Familial Factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 54: 635-641.
144. Berglund, M. et al. Comparison of Monounsaturated Fat with Carbohydrates as a Replacement for Saturated Fat in Subjects with a High Metabolic Risk Profile: Studies in the Fasting and Postpr andial States. Am. J. Clin Nut. Dec 1, 2007;86(6):1611 – 1620.
145. Ouyang X. et al. “Fructose Consumption as a Risk Factor for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.” J of Hepatol. 2008;48(6):993-999.
146. De Stefani E., et al. “Dietary patterns and risk of bladder cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay.”Cancer Causes Control, 2008; [Epub ahead of print].

About the Author

Dr. Nancy Appleton has told this story many times, but she is a sugarholic. Years of sneaking sugary snacks only to work it off on the tennis courts led to sickness and allergy as her constant companions. Despite everything the doctors tried she didn’t get better, until…

…she asked the question, “What am I doing to make myself sick?”

Thus began an odyssey of research, lecturing and writing in an attempt to bring her discoveries of homeostasis and mineral relationships based on the works of Walter B. Cannon, MD and Melvin Page, DDS to everyone who is sick and needs help. Naturally, this meant that her BS in Health and Nutrition from UCLA wasn’t enough of a degree to be believed. This led to a PhD in Health Services from Walden University.

Dr. Appleton has written 5 books: Lick the Sugar Habit, The Curse of Louis Pasteur, Healthy Bones, Lick the Sugar Habit Sugar Counter and Stopping Inflammation. She has retired from her nutrition counseling practice in Los Angeles but continues to write, lecture and broadcast on health subjects. Otherwise, she lives quietly in San Diego.

Join Wake Up World's Ever Evolving Social Communities

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Plus

  • K.Hombo

    Sugar is….Glucose? Fructose….? Powdered sugar? Syrup? Honey? What kind of sugar gives us all of these maladies???

    • Eeer

      Any refined sugar. There’s also HFCS(High-fructose corn syrup or glucose-fructose syrup). Chemically it’s identical to ‘table sugar’ (sucrose). It goes directly to the liver, activating enzymes that instruct the body to store fat. Your body needs glucose, the problem is more with sugar refining, the process when they extract sugar out from plants, depleting all the vitamin and minerals from it. It provides only ’empty’ calories to your body. Healthier but definitely more natural sugar replacements could be the following; agave nectar, raw honey, stevia, coconut palm sugar, maple syrup.

  • Lynn

    Thank-you for such a comprehensive list, its certainly ” food for thought” I must blog this link.

  • makar

    You could probably interchange the word ‘sugar’ with ‘water’ for a great deal of these

    • Jamie

      What a ridiculous statement!

  • fernando1958

    5 years ago I replaced all my sugar intake with saccarine (sugar replacement), the well know Hermesets. On those days I noticed that my knuckles were white and that the elasticity in the muscles of my legs was horrible (when press with my thumb it left an impression for a while). After thinking very hard of what could be causing that, I realize the only artificial thing I was consuming was this saccarine pills. I switch back to sugar and after 1 or 2 months my knuckles started to look healthy and the strength in my legs came back.
    I tried to consume organic cane sugar as much as I can but won’t touch an synthetic sugar ever again.

    • Patricia C. Meek

      Very good post… I agree with you about organic cane sugar… I will do that instead of a little bag of sweetener other than Splender or Eu__?__. Wink !

  • Tony

    Really, one reference/reason? Not saying sugar (assuming cane/beet and fructose) can’t have negative effects, but this looks a lot like cherry picking.

  • http://www.laviasana.org Elvia Knoll

    I think the issue is the amount of consumption, rather than criminalizing the substance- and understanding that FRANKENSTEIN FOODS are full of all kinds of chemicals besides sugar…

  • Kishan Vasekar

    One has to learn the balance suitable for his body. No doubt sugar has many adverse effects on health in the long run. I have recovered from Heart Attack , Kidney failure and many complications. Reducing my sugar consumption by 70 % in last 9 months has helped a lot. So here is guideline —

    YOU CAN ALWAYS MAIL ME ON [email protected] or Kishan Vasekar on facebook


  • gnarggles

    and drinking too much water can kill you. life without sugar would suck. everything in moderation.

    • Lori

      You really are addicted looks like….it’s like a heroine addict or alcoholic who doesn’t want to live without their drugs or bottle…life will be BETTER my friend in the long run….that is if you make it that long…

  • Les

    Sugar is in absolutely everything. It would be very difficult to avoid it completely without having to consume the artificial sweeteners which I feel are far more dangerous.

    I try to use honey to sweeten my tea/coffee and avoid processed food whenever possible. However, I do like the odd beer so can’t avoid sugar completely 😉

    • Lori

      If you research beer, wine and alcohol you will find that they do NOT contain any sugar..that’s right…zero sugar…check it out for yourself…I love beer and am delighted that I don’t have to give it up…giving up sugar is easy when you realize how harmful it really it and how easy it is to substitute with xylitol, agave nectar and honey.(in moderation of course)

  • tom

    Why talk about sweeteners ? Just drop the sugar and enjoy real taste, not sweet. I dropped sugar, coffee and sweets about a year ago and get plenty of sugar from other foodstuffs and fruits.

  • http://www.vibrationalhealth.com.au Vivian Mizzi

    Would just like to point out that there are other alternatives to Sugar such as Xylitol – a natural and healthy sweetener derived from corn cobs which is good for you! It also protects your teeth from decay. It contains – No Sugars, No Artificial Sweeteners. Is low carbohydrate, low glycaemic index of 7, does not significantly raise blood sugar levels and is 40% less calories than sugar. Also GMO free.

    • Lu Lu

      Corn is usually GM, so how could something made from corn cobs be good for you? Perhaps organic Stevia would be a better option.

  • Lavinia

    I agree, from personal experience. I’ve always been a person who likes sugar, and often had sugary snacks, etc. At the same time, I was suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome, bile problems, acne, plus other mild ones too. What I did was to switch to eating only unrefined organic coconut sugar, which also has a lower GI, and it’s not made in a factory. I ate only and only that. No honey, no maple syrup, home made cakes were made only with coconut sugar, coffee with same. What happened was that I first ate a lot as usual, but I felt that it didn’t gave me ‘highs’ and ‘lows’, and my sugar cravings decreased. Now my sugar cravings are gone, even though I allow myself any sweets with coconut sugar. Also, my polycystic ovary syndrome solved itself and my acne is gone. My bile works well too. I even eat less sugar because I can finally feel a limit; I just can’t go overboard any more.

  • Phil

    “14. Sugar raises the level of a neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.”

    is it a bad thing..?

  • joni

    Did anyone else notice how a lot of them were just repeats of previous numbers, just phrasing them differently???? For example 1 and 5, also 6, 19, and 51. And 32 and 124 just change one word! I agree refined sugar is very bad for you. Especially the amount most Americans consume. But this article is not very well done. It doesn’t specify if it is white sugar or just natural “sugars” found in pretty much anything (fruit, honey, veggies, etc).